Dr Dukan diet – principles, phases and effects of the diet with a sample menu
The diet created by Dr. Pierre Dukan consists of four phases that enable us to lose weight. The key standard of the Dukan diet is eating mainly protein products. In addition to weight loss, the diet also cleanses the body, avoids the yo-yo effect and allows you to maintain a good appearance for many years.
It was developed by a French dietician Pierre Dukan, who specializes in the fight against overweight. Dukan diet, also called Protal diet, was created on the basis of experience and work with patients. It was published in 2001 in the book “I can’t lose weight”. The weight loss program is based on a high protein diet and consists of four stages. The first and second stage in the diet is to lose weight, and the third and fourth stages stabilize body weight and prevent the yo-yo effect.
- 1 Effect of proteins on the human body
- 2 The four phases of the Dukan diet
- 3 Rules for the Dukan diet
- 4 Effects of the Dukan diet
- 5 Effects of being on the Dukan diet
- 6 Sample menus
Effect of proteins on the human body
Proteins are of great importance for our body. They affect, among other things:
- Cause a decrease in appetite – digestion of proteins is difficult and long-lasting, therefore they inhibit the feeling of hunger. In addition, meals rich in pure proteins cause our body to secrete ketone bodies, which provide a lasting feeling of satiety. The research shows that eating pure proteins for three days results in complete suppression of the feeling of hunger.
- Reduce the number of calories supply – at the time of supplying the digestive system with food rich in proteins, it is not able to fully utilize the calorific value of food. Therefore, our body tries to take the proteins we need to maintain organ function. As a result, we absorb fewer calories.
- They affect the retention of water in the body – a protein diet can also be called a hydrophobic treatment, because it affects the frequency of urine excretion. This is especially important for women before menstruation or during menopause.
- Fight cellulite – here, too, the hydrophobic properties of proteins and the active work of the kidneys due to the higher intake of fluids are important. This causes the removal of impurities from the body, so that cellulite is “flushed” from the body.
The four phases of the Dukan diet
The plan laid out by Dr. Dukan is based on clear and precise guidelines. It is enough to follow them to achieve the desired goal, which is a slim and beautiful figure. The program consists of four phases of the diet:
Phase I: pure proteins
This is also called the attack phase. It consists of consuming only food that includes pure proteins. The beginning is rough, but weight loss is instantaneous and the body is cleansed of toxins. The phase lasts for 5 days, while it is also worth adjusting it according to the need of the amount of weight loss throughout the diet program. Therefore:
- Up to 5 kilograms – should last 2 days, and the decrease in the first phase is 0.5 to 1.5 kg,
- Up to10 kil ograms – should last 3 days, and the decrease in the first phase is from 1.5 to 2.5 kg,
- Up to20 kil ograms – should last 5 days, and the decrease in the first phase is from 1.8 to 3.0 kg,
- Up to 40 kilograms – should last a minimum of 7 days and a maximum of 10 days, while the weight loss in the first phase is 3 kg.
The foods that are allowed in this phase are: veal, lean beef, poultry such as chicken breast, fish, seafood, lean dairy products such as cottage cheese or natural yogurt (yellow cheese is not recommended) or hard-boiled egg. Heat treatment that can be used to prepare meat is steaming or boiling in water, grilling or baking. We should eliminate fats such as butter, oil or olive oil in this period, and use herbs for seasoning dishes. Salt in this stage should be reduced to a minimum. We can use sweeteners for coffee or tea, additionally light sodas are allowed.
During this stage of Dukan diet constipation may occur due to high protein supply. In this case it is advisable to reach for a natural yoghurt with bran. You should also drink plenty of water. You may also experience dry mouth and unpleasant breath. This is a typical symptom of such a restrictive diet, so it’s a good idea to have sugar-free chewing gum with you.
Phase II: Protein plus vegetables
The second phase of Dr. Dukan’s diet program is based on steady weight loss, which refers to an alternate diet, that is, first you consume meals consisting of vegetables and protein for five days, and the next five days you return only to protein products. This process should last as long as we are satisfied with the results of the weight loss diet.
During this stage we eat all the foods allowed in the first phase and: tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, peppers, zucchini, celery, radishes, spinach, broccoli, asparagus, leek, mushrooms and cabbage. However, rice, potatoes, avocado, legumes and corn are still not recommended.
At this stage of the slimming process fats are still prohibited, and vegetables can be enriched with fat-free dressings such as lemon juice or natural yoghurt 0% fat. They should be cooked or eaten raw .
Phase III – consolidation
By reaching phase III we have already done a good job. This phase of the Dukan diet allows us to expand the menu, making the diet more varied. However, we should remember to eat only protein products once a week. However, we can allow ourselves a two-course dinner with dessert twice a week. Wine lovers can also allow themselves a glass of your favorite beverage. The period of stay at this stage in the Dukan diet depends on how many kilograms we managed to lose. The result is the number of days, which tells us how long we should stay in this phase of the diet. The result is a number of days which tells us how long we should stay on this phase of the diet.
Products allowed at this stage are: fruits – one portion a day (all except cherries, bananas and grapes), additionally two slices of wholemeal bread. Additionally, we can enrich our diet with a slice of yellow cheese one day a week.
In addition, twice a week we can eat two portions of products consisting of starch, such as pasta, groats, potatoes and rice. Legumes are also allowed in the same proportions weekly. Fats can also already be used, but it is worth remembering that small amounts still apply.
Phase IV – stabilization
Following Dukan diet lasts for 4 phases, the last one allows us to eat whatever we want, of course keeping common sense. If we suddenly start eating unhealthy food, sweets and drinking sweet sodas, which provide our body with “empty” carbohydrates and fats, our efforts will be in vain .
It is worth paying attention to ensure that our diet is properly balanced. Thanks to this the body will get what is best for it.
This stage of the Protal plan should ideally last for the rest of our lives, a few simple rules will allow us to eat normally and not gain weight.
Rules for the Dukan diet
The main rule for people who are on the Dukan diet is to eat only when you feel hungry. It is also important to properly hydrate the body. Water cleanses the body of toxins and improves metabolism. Physical activity should also be limited to a minimum, because in the first two stages we are weakened. Additionally, it is worth controlling the level of vitamins and minerals in blood, and possibly supplement deficiencies with good quality supplements. Dr. Pierre Dukan also says that it is necessary to eat oat bran on this diet. They have many health-promoting benefits for our bodies, which include their satiating effect, aiding weight loss, lowering cholesterol levels and protecting us from diabetes.
Effects of the Dukan diet
The traditional reduction diet involves meticulously watching the calories we take in. It is important to take in fewer calories than we should, so reduce them in a safe manner. Protein diet does not require quantitative restrictions, so we are not hungry while following it, and in addition the excess weight escapes.
Effects of being on the Dukan diet
When following the Dukan diet, it is worth considering it carefully. This is an eating plan that puts a strain on our body, due to its high protein content. A person who would like to start it shouldcontact a doctor and do some basic research. When using this type of diet for a long period of time, it is necessary to control the functioning of the kidneys and liver, because these organs will be most overloaded.
Below I have prepared a sample menu that fits all phases of the diet:
- Breakfast – scrambled eggs prepared from two eggs,
- Second breakfast – natural yoghurt 0% fat,
- Dinner – roasted chicken breast,
- Afternoon – 2 slices of turkey ham
- Supper – lean cottage cheese with chives
- Breakfast – lean cottage cheese with chives and radishes,
- Second breakfast – carrot,
- Dinner – grilled chicken with courgettes.
- Afternoon snack – pudding
- Dinner – chicken escalopes with Provence
- Breakfast – slice of bread with chicken breast ham and tomato
- Second breakfast – natural yoghurt with an apple
- Dinner – roast pork with boiled beetroot
- Snack – fat-free homogenized cheese
- Dinner – vegetable soup
- Breakfast – scrambled eggs with chicken ham
- Second breakfast – kefir and strawberry cocktail
- Lunch – Swiss potato casserole
- Snack – shortcrust pastry
- Dinner – Zucchini noodles
- Dukan P., The method of doctor Dukan, I can’t lose weight, Wyd. Otwarte
- Kiedrowski M., Gajewska D., What should a family doctor know about popular “slimming diets” and weight loss itself, Department of Pathology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska Oncology Center – Institute, Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw 2013
- Szczuko M., Pieszczak N., Milic – Jamioł D., Stachowska E., Protein diet in the light of the principles of rational nutrition. Analysis of the composition of menus, Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 2016
- Ciszewski M., Czekaj T., Jasińska M., Michalak – Orszulak D., High-protein Protal diet – salvation or threat?, Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, 2011